**MISSION 13**

# Memory and Unicode

In the first module of our data structures and algorithms course, you will learn about memory and Unicode. In the first half of this module, you will learn how computers store values in memory and in the second half, you will learn about Unicode. Toward the end of this module, you'll use what you learned to analyze excerpts from CIA reports and find the most common terms for each year.

You will learn concepts such as binary values, how computers store files, ASCII characters, and much more. You will learn how to arithmetic using binary numbers such as addition and subtraction. You'll also become familiar with another numbering system known as hexadecimal (or base 16). You'll find out how you can use Python to convert numbers from hexadecimal to binary and vice versa.

As you work through each concept, you’ll get to apply what you’ve learned from within your browser — there's no need to use your own machine to do the exercises. The Python environment inside of this course includes answer checking so you can ensure that you've fully mastered each concept before learning the next.

#### Objectives

#### Mission Outline

1. Introduction

2. The Basics of Binary

3. Binary Addition

4. Converting Binary Values to Other Bases

5. Converting Characters to Binary

6. Introduction to Unicode

7. Strings with Unicode

8. The Bytes Data Type

9. Introduction to HexaDecimal

10. Hexadecimal Conversions

11. Hex to Binary

12. Bytes and Strings

13. Decode Bytes to Strings

14. Read in File Data

15. Convert to a dataframe

16. Clean up Sentences

17. Tokenize Statements

18. Filter the Tokens

19. Count the Tokens

20. Most Common Tokens

21. Finding the Most Common Tokens by Year

22. Takeaways