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# Category: Data Science Tutorials

## Apply Functions in R with Examples [apply(), sapply(), lapply (), tapply()]

In this tutorial, we’ll learn about the apply() function in R, including when to use it and why it’s more efficient than loops. The apply() function is the basic model of the family of apply functions in R, which includes specific functions like lapply(), sapply(), tapply(), mapply(), vapply(), rapply(), bapply(), eapply(), and others. All of […]

## How to Create a Dataframe in R with 30 Code Examples (2022)

DataFrames are essential data structures in the R programming language. In this tutorial, we’ll discuss how to create a dataframe in R. A DataFrame in R is a tabular (i.e., 2-dimensional, rectangular) data structure used to store values of any data type. It’s a data structure of the base R, meaning that we don’t have […]

## Python Tutorial: Web Scraping with Scrapy (8 Code Examples)

In this Python tutorial, we’ll go over web scraping using Scrapy — and we’ll work through a sample e-commerce website scraping project. There are more than 40 zetabytes of data available on the Internet. Unfortunately, a large portion of it is unstructured and not machine-readable. This means that you can access the data through websites […]

## Python Datetime: A Simple Guide with 39 Code Examples (2022)

You may already be familiar with various data types in Python like integers, floats, strings, etc. However, sometimes when you’re developing a script or a machine learning algorithm, you should use dates and times. In everyday life, we can represent dates and times in many different formats, for example, July 4, March 8, 2022, 22:00, […]

## Python Math Module Guide (22 Examples and 18 Functions)

Using The math Module in Python math is a built-in module in the Python 3 standard library that provides standard mathematical constants and functions. You can use the math module to perform various mathematical calculations, such as numeric, trigonometric, logarithmic, and exponential calculations. This tutorial will explore the common constants and functions implemented in the […]

## Python Strings: An In-Depth Tutorial (55+ Code Examples)

Data types help us categorize data items. They determine the kinds of operations that we can perform on a data item. In Python, the common standard data types include numbers, string, list, tuple, boolean, set, and dictionary. In this tutorial, we’ll focus on the string data type. We will discuss how to declare the string […]

## Tutorial: How to Easily Read Files in Python (Text, CSV, JSON)

Reading Files with Python Files are everywhere: on computers, mobile devices, and across the cloud. Working with files is essential for every programmer, regardless of which programming language you’re using. File handling is a mechanism for creating a file, writing data, and reading data from it. The good news is that Python is enriched with […]

## The Easy Way to Install a Package in R (with 8 Code Examples)

R is a powerhouse programming language with many data science applications. But before we can put its packages to work, we need to install them. Here’s how. R is a programming language for statistical computing, especially efficient for performing data science tasks. This popularity is because R offers an impressive choice of data science-oriented packages, […]

## Python Dictionaries: A Comprehensive Tutorial (with 52 Code Examples)

What Is a Dictionary in Python? A Python dictionary is a data structure that allows us to easily write very efficient code. In many other languages, this data structure is called a hash table because its keys are hashable. We’ll understand in a bit what this means. A Python dictionary is a collection of key:value […]

## How to Set Up Visual Studio Code in 2022 (The Easy Way)

Visual Studio Code is a powerful, extensible, and lightweight code editor that has become one of the preferred code editors in the Python community. In this tutorial, we’ll learn how to install Visual Studio Code and set it up for Python development, as well as how to become more productive with VS Code. Let’s dive […]